Month: April 2018


Advertising and Internet: a Long term relationship

Entrepreneurs these days work hard to take their business to the next level. Now, they are frequently using Internet as an important medium for advertising. To create brand awareness and to reach universal markets, online advertising is now excessively used. In India alone, over 41,000 advertisers have advertised on Internet, which means around 46 million advertisers. This makes India a sizeable target market for Internet advertisers.
Due to rise in competition, online advertisement agency or online advertising companies are hired. They help in promotion and well planned advertising. This also proves that advertising is the major part of promotional blend and also is crucial for achieving success. It is always a good idea to start the advertising campaign with best planning and proper coordination of advertising agency and advertising company.

It is acknowledgeable that online advertising is valuable since it reaches out more and is best for the advertisers. Any person of any social segment can view online advertisements. Another main positive feature of online advertising is that this type of advertising is not restricted by time zones or geographical boundaries.
To create an impact on potential customer and to ensure good returns, advertisers donít hesitate on ad spends. They are assured that returns would be considerably good. A successful advertising campaign becomes obvious only when ads are placed right and are targeted perfectly.

The many search engines on Internet have drawn attention towards advertising through information technology. This helps common buyer also deeply as a person always tries to find out more about the product before buying the needful product of service.
If a person wants to go for banner advertising, then a lot of aspects those have to be managed intentionally. A professional Internet advertising agency or an Internet advertising company can be appointed for it.
Internet advertising comes under new media. Online advertising or Internet advertising is a whole new world of potential. It is not just cheaper but a very fast medium also. Youngsters spend a lot of time online; therefore to get money, tricks like ëclick throughí on advertisements are uses. In some collages, companies give free Internet access. For any company; youngsters are a major market, therefore most feasible to create brand familiarity. For this purpose companies provide free games, chat rooms, free downloads, etc. By doing this, the advertiser tends to create a positive notion for the product in youngsters mind.

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Advertising and Promoting Using Articles

A very efficient method to advertise your professional services, the products you are selling or simply to show how educated you are in a particular niche is by using the highly beneficial method of article marketing.

These articles that enclose at the end a short presentation of you or your business can be about various solution to actual problems, about everyday life or any other topic that will interest and inform a reader about the subject. There are many sites to which you can submit these articles to, or if you have a database of your customersí emails, just drop them an email containing the article and a link to your personal site or professional site. Over time, it is hoped that your article will be syndicated on websites throughout the internet.

The articles can generally be copied from one article submission site to the other as long as the content belongs to you and you are not stealing someone elseís work. There is a huge demand for content on the internet, it’s what keeps the search engines hungry, and with so many website owners and ezine publishers regularly looking for fresh content, chances are that your article will not only be used on article directories but also on several other sites.

The more interesting and informative an article is, the more people will read and remember it. Even if you donít have experience with writing, there are some benefits that may persuade you to give it a try:

– It may improve the way you convey your thoughts on a subject.
– It will bring your website visibility.
– If itís written well it will may help someone.
– You can prove your knowledge in your professional areas.

Publishing articles means they have to contain mostly useful information and just a little bit of advertising. If they donít follow this rule, you might end up with an un-publishable article. The promotion area of the article is usually meant for the end of that article, known as the “resource box”. As an article directory owner myself, I know that there are many authors who insist on placing links to their website throughout the article, but I would suggest that having an informative article with the links to “futher information” in the resource box is a much clearer and better structured approach.

Articles are meant to inform the reader of a particular subject, and not merely persuade the reader to visit your site with every paragraph written. In fact, should you have a good enough article, the reader will more than likely choose to visit the site in your resource box in any case. I recently received an article that contained 11 links in a 200-word article! This DID NOT include the resource box where a further 4 links were provided. Needless to say the article was rejected, so make sure your articles are interesting and informative with promotion left to the appropriate section.

There are other things you could do with articles if you are willing to spend some money. There are different publicity sites, ranked high in search engines that for a fee will publish your article on their site for a limited period of time. The fee is not high usually, but can provide publicity should you choose this route. But if this choice is the one that appeals to you the most, you must make sure the article is really good, so good that it can compete with all the other articles on that site. The user can see them all at the same time and you must think of ways to make him choose to read yours. If you have tried and you are not confident you can do it on your own, you can always hire a professional.

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Advertising – Are You Wasting Your Money?

Anybody who has a product to sell, an idea to promote or a service to offer relies on advertising to get the attention they require.

There are so many forms of advertising that finding the correct medium can sometimes be a daunting task.

Depending on the type of business, or the reason for your need for promotion you may find it easier to seek some professional advice.

Firstly you need to decide who your target market is, whether it is men or woman, older generation, younger generation, companies etc.

Secondly you need to ascertain whether your market is local, national or global. This is important, as leaflet dropping in your local supermarket car park is fine if your product or service is a local one, but if your services can be offered world wide or nationally, then you are seriously losing out on the largest percentage of your market.

Once you know who you are planning to target, and where they are, you can begin to research the how, which are the options you have available.

There is an absolute ton of free information on the internet, and if you are reading this, you must have access to it!

If you have a low budget, try doing the advertising yourself, you can knock up some great leaflets from your own pc, (providing your market is local).

Making a website has become a lot easier over the years, and if you shop around you can get some great prices on hosting packages and domain names. Try downloading a free html editor, preferably with a wysiwyg platform, (what you see is what you get), there is a wealth of information on the internet to guide you through making a simple website.

If you have a bigger budget, then consulting with one of the many advertising companies is an option. These people can advise you, and come up with some fantastic ideas, but be sure to shop around and not just go with the first company you come across. Prices will vary, and their expertise will vary also, so itís an idea to ask to see some references, or some of their projects with other clients that they have worked on.

Done correctly, and with proper research, advertising will reap rewards. It is after all one of the most important factors in any business. So I personally, would always recommend that you give this area the attention it deserves!

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Advertising: Laying Your Cards on the Table

Successful marketing is not really measured in how many customers you were able to sell today. To be really able to say that you have a great marketing strategy is to be able to know that your customers were happy and satisfied with their purchase and that they were able to get their moneyís worth.

There was a time in history when advertising was overstated. This was during the time when advertising was still new and only few people were aware of it. All business owners have to do is make up some claims and hopefully many people will be attracted to buy their products. But today, this strategy doesnít work anymore. People are much wiser these days when buying products and availing of services. They know that when a certain marketing material is exaggerated it has hidden flaws and faults. Competition is also stiff that is why business owners would rather put sincere advertising in their materials than risk losing their customers and their business.

So when businesses need to promote something these days they make sure that it contains good content, design and of course honest advertising. Customers are fussier these days. They make sure that they get their dollarís worth for whatever product they buy. So letís say you want to advertise your new products through posters. It is important to not only put a lot of attention to the design but to the content as well. What you put in your poster will reflect not only your business and product but who you really are. If you are able to convey a sincere and professional impression to your target customers then they might continue buying your products and even refer you to their friends and colleagues.

In addition to honesty in your contents, you can also add humor to it. People never fail to recognize a good laugh when they see one. It is always pleasing for people to read funny and lighthearted materials. Consequently, they would never look at your poster as an advertisement; rather they would be encouraged to see what is it that you have to offer.

Remember that your business image is priceless so you have to maintain and preserve it at all times. And keep in mind that the success of your business will most likely depend on how you project your image to your prospects. So be very careful in what you write in your advertisements. Write and edit them with utmost regard for honesty, bluntness and common sense.

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You are not running a business. You are copying a grandma's hobby of making pies.

Like any grandma, she had the hobby of making pies and we use to receive lots and lots of pies to make her happy.

Like or not, grand kids are told to always thank grandma for the pie and tell her how wonderful is the pie, how they can not resist the last pie which was the best.  It ends up of having more pies,  although they never liked the pies till today.

Grandma is a very senior, (and I hate to say old) with very limited mobility and very bad or no eyesight will challenge her ability to make more pies and send them to her grand kids as she believes she makes them happier.

I was invited to an introduction to a new product with the business owner and I was told that is better for my health and my life.  I was given a bottle to try and I just curious.   I was told that it is a new product that is better than anything else for my health.  I was intrigued and as I start to ask simple questions to find a reason to try the sample.

I found a very strong resistance to answer simple questions.  I was framed as a consultant or to be in the business of helping others.  I was told to not impose my service.  I am not consult and I am not in the business find other businesses to offer them service.  I think they should simply search my name on google “Wael Badawy” and they will know who I and what I am not doing.

The product was introduced as a mix of some ingredient that I know and others that I do not know and I may not heard about it.  – It triggers a flag to me because I am not in a position to eat or drink what I do not know in the absence of a strong motive.  I am also framed that there are fruits and vegetable that I should be taken but I do not them, I am not sure what I am missing !!!
I predict that the consumer of these products are the type of individuals who are using organic products because they like to know everything about their food and they do not like the chemical that they do not know and may impact their health.  I saw the second flag, because I was judged again.

I want to say that “organic” is good to justify its high price, but  “organic” or natural ingredient that I do not know is better, is not true.  Pure marijuana or marijuana’ s leaves are danger plant and even though we need to know more details to understand its medicinal effect.   If I consume it, I will be addicted and I may end up in Jail because I am using an organic natural plant !!!

Then the presentation went to explain that principle of consume the whole fruit/vegetable as a juice, against extracts.  In mind, it is questionable with many diverse arguments. As a matter of fact, having a full lime as a juice will change its flavour and texture with time because of oxidation, and it can turn to be poisoning or has higher toxic.  I can not consume the orange or the banana as a whole, I have to peal it first !!!  – Anyway, I will pass on this argument because I am not the expert but I know when i eat.

Then I started to ask questions to better understand who is the owner, what is the business value and what is the quality of the product in order to give me a level of confidence to try  the product.

I asked about the size of the business, to feel comfort that there are others trust and use this product.  I was looking to understand their WHY, or what are the reasons to buy this over priced product.

I asked about the growth plan in the next three or five years. I asked about the vision of the owner to simple get a confirmation and make sense of the quality of the product and there is someone stands behind it.   All what I received is “3 and 5 years are very long time”.  In the absence of an answer, it demonstrates that there is no continuity no guarantee to a quality control or that the same product at different time will have the same ingredient and taste the same.

I asked about the value of the product is to try to find my WHY, to tryout the sample.   The articulated value is “You drink good natural stuff, so your body will perform better”.  I asked, does it help with a diet plan, or release weight, or having high energy, etc.  The value was articulated well, you eat better ingredient, you be healthier and you feel good.  First of all, I do not eat pizza and burger all days and I eat apple and banana every day.  “One apple a day, keeps the doctor away!!!”   The articulated value is very general and I can have a strong blinder and I use organic mix of fruits and vegetables. AND, WOW, the mix will have similar value.     The answers continues to be “the ingredients used are planted by the owner in business owner garden!!!”

I asked about the science or the research behind this drink.  The answer that the business owner has researched each one of these ingredient.  The business owner has two degrees (none related to food, or health or technology or medicine) and everyone is impressed of these two degrees with no relation to the business.  Moreover, the business owner has no passion to either degree and do not work in these areas and offers this product to serve and help others.

The product looks very professional with an expiry date of two days!!! The product comes in a quantity of 1, 4 and 8.  I also noted that the bottle has an expiry date within two days.   I do not know the reason that of the expiry date given that there is no research or science behind the product.  I wondered If someone want to order a pack of eight bottles, will he/her use them all in  two days. what about the logistics of producing, distributing and consuming, a product that has to be kept cold (I assume) within two days.   It mean that a very limited number of customers with limited quantity orders, within a very small geographical area. So the production, distribution and consumption in two days !!!.

This is not a business, this is a grandma hobby to make pies, it is:

1- The pies are initially FREE till she as for a favour in return, which will be fairly pricy.
2- The ingredient is from grandma apply tree in the back yard – Oh, by the way, it is natural and very organic because grandma is not in heath conditions to take care of the tree or even fertilize the tree.
3- Grandma believes she makes her grand kids happier by offering more pie and she consumes her effort, while the grandkids do not prefer to eat the pies, or do not eat them at all.
4- Grandma pies have to be eaten hot, and within one or two days.
5- No one knows grandma secret ingredient, even grandmas
6- Grandma pies differ from time to time, based on the mood and the time in the oven, grandma can not read the time.
7- Grandma serves only her family and friends which has a very limited consumer base.

The whole time, I was simply looking for a reason to try a sample of a new product.  I may feel lucky to put my hand on a free sample of this product and I was trying to find the reason for myself. BUT, I know grandma but I do not know you.  So please stop copying grandma hobby to make pies and focus on building a business.

Note from the author: 

This is a true story and I held the name of the product and business because I have the care and passion to every small business and entrepreneur in our community.   I strongly believe that the message will help everyone in their business, So please let me know you thought below. 

I also say that I owe the business owner the price of the sample because I did not feel comfort to drink it which is my fault and the sample passed the expiry date!!!


Advertising Agency Software: What You Need to Know

There are many different types of software that an advertising agency needs to conduct business efficiently. Here are some examples of tasks that can be supported by software that is currently available to agencies:

ï Create estimates and quotes, invoices and schedules for client approval
ï Prepare drafts of a new brochure, print ad, or annual report for review
ï Manage client feedback on direct mail materials
ï Track key project milestone dates
ï Prepare and review media plans
ï Prepare a storyboard presentation for a client
ï Prepare market research
ï Schedule project tasks
ï Review rough cuts
ï Create project timelines
ï Manage external client and prospect requests
ï Schedule media
ï Time tracking
ï Track expenses against estimates
ï Plan and analyze resources usage
ï Accounting and bookkeeping

To meet these needs, an advertising agency should consider the following:

Graphic Design Software ñ The agency will need a creative design Application Suite like Macromedia Design Suite or
Adobe Creative Suite to do the basic graphic design, storyboarding and other more creative aspects of producing
advertising material.

Audio and Video Editing Software ñ If they do the mockups of their radio and television commercials in-house they will need to be able to edit them for client review before they turn everything over to the actual production company that produces the final versions.

Office Applications – Most companies use Microsoft Office for word processing, spreadsheet and presentation software since it has become the standard for businesses.

Contact Manager ñ The agency needs a good contact manager to keep track of all of their client information. Larger agencies may want to opt for a sophisticated customer relations management (CRM) system instead.

Email Client ñ An agency needs a good email client. Although there are a lot of good email clients available, Outlook is the business standard and has scheduling capabilities for meetings, distribution lists, public folders, the ability to flag all correspondence from specific individual clients and basic content management capabilities.

Project management, Time & Expense Tracking Software ñ because they work on individual projects, an agency needs software that can track all of the costs associated with each project. The software should be able to track employee time with the ability to use split rates and multiple rates, raw materials, outsourced invoices, etc.

Accounting Software ñ They need standard accounting software that provides invoicing, accounts receivable, accounts payable and general ledger functions. Larger agencies may need the software to handle multiple currencies and tax codes.

New Possibilities

With the advent of extranets, special software suites have been developed specifically for advertising agencies. They include programs that can provide contact management, time & expense tracking, project management, scheduling and email management. Some of the applications can even interface directly with the firmís accounting software.

Another innovation is the client service extranet. They have replaced email as the favored forum for sharing and organizing the vast number of documents that are part of all client/agency relationships.

Using an extranet allows all employees, vendors, suppliers, clients and others on the project team to have real time access to all of the pertinent project details from anywhere in the world. Best of all, an extranet makes it possible to share the design documents, audio and video clips with the project online in real time. No more waiting for courier delivery or a face-to-face meeting providing better customer service than ever before possible.

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Advertising? Consider Product Life Cycle & Customer Buying Habits

When you create advertising for small businesses, consider both the life cycle of your product or service along with customer buying habits.

Today, both sellers and buyers alike want fast results. You should recognize that the actual process of turning your prospects into customers still takes time. Buying cycle times may be shorter today, but the process still exists. People often buy according to their past purchasing habits and patterns. These habits can be hard to change.

Classic marketing theory details the life cycle of a product or service as (1) introduction, (2) growth, (3) maturity, (4) decline, and (5) phase-out. In other words: when it’s (1) New, (2) Rapidly Accepted, (3) The Industry Standard, (4) Fading, and (5) Hard to Find.

Furthermore, the people who buy those products/services can be profiled in different stages as (a) innovative adapters, (b) majority adapters, or (c) stragglers.

Profiles of these three buyer categories (a) (b) (c) are helpful in creating advertising tailored to each phase of the five life cycles of the product or service. Judge accordingly.

For example, when you introduce a new product or service, one of your prime target markets should be the early adapters, the innovators. It has been estimated somewhere around 10 to 20 percent of people do their own research and experimentation about their purchases. (An ever-increasing number do their research on the web ñ before they contact anyone.)

The other 80 percent or so are followers (b) (c). They read, listen to, or watch ads; try recommendations from their friends, neighbors or co-workers; or use coupons, etc.

It is advertising that educates and entices prospects at these different purchasing stages to try something new for them. Most importantly, it happens person-by-person. Over time, good advertising can remind, motivate and change buying habits for those in each type of profile.

So it is important to let each group know your product or service is there and ready for them when they want to buy. Plan to have your advertising message repeated often enough where it will be available to them when they are ready to explore and make a buying decision.

It only takes money and time. Be patient. Keep chipping away at it. Soon, your targeted advertising message will be part of your product life cycle and customer buying habits.

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Advertise, Advertise, Advertise

Many people sign up for affiliate programs with the hopes of making some serious money. They advertise a few places and then wait for the money to start pouring in. When it doesnít, they blame it on the program and quit.

I am convinced the only way to make money online is to have a consistent Advertising plan. A plan you are willing to work hard on and commit to for a selected period of time. When making this plan, you need to do two things. First, you should pick a few affiliate programs that are of interest to you. Second, you need to decide how long you want to work these programs. Once you decide on a time period (I recommend 6 months to a year), you must make a promise to yourself that you will not stop advertising until that time period is up. This is perhaps the most important factor in your success.

Next, you need to consider your advertising options: traffic exchanges, classified ads, e-mail campaigns, ezine articles, posting to forums or message boards, chatting with others who are interested in what you have to offer, and posting flyers around your town. Now you see the many possible advertising avenues you can choose from. I recommend doing all of them. It may sound like a lot of work, but when broken down into a plan, it is not.

One possible plan may look like this: Traffic Exchanges-1 hour per day. Post 15 classified ads per day. Make 5 posts to a message board or forum per day. Submit an article once per week to an ezine. Visit chat rooms and distribute flyers as you have extra time during the week. This all can be accomplished by spending 2-3 hours per day. You will be surprised how much you get done when you have a plan. You may also choose whether you will work 5 or 6 days per week. Make a checklist for each day of the week, and mark each task off as you finish it. That will keep you on focus, and will make you feel good that you are one step closer to reaching your goal.

Make a commitment to your new plan and donít get involved in any other programs until your current programs are making you money consistently. Donít give up. Sticking with this plan will significantly improve your success. Remember, Advertise, Advertise, Advertise.

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dvertise to millions -#6- Multiple marketing techniques.


This is a series of articles about marketing and advertising. There are different ways you can reach an audience of millions of individuals all around the world. I show you on this series how to implement profitable strategies in your marketing career.

It has been said that “what matters is not what you sell but how you promote it.” So, the secret to success lays within your marketing techniques. That’s why it is very important for business owners to develop skills which allow them to increase the sales of their products.

One of the most important skills you must have is the ability to reach a lot of people quickly. To do this you need to realize how powerful media is an how it can drastically increase your revenues.
– Newspaper ads –

Americans read their newspapers a lot, that’s a fact. Check the statistics and you will realize that the newspaper have always being a good place to advertise. Depending on the kind of products or services that you sell you could use the American’s newspapers to generate new sources of income for your business.

It doesn’t matter whether you live in the USA or not. For example if you own an international e-business this could bring you good profits. I think this is another way you can diversify your marketing strategies.

There is a website called Nationwide Newspapers, which allow you to post your ad in thousands and even millions of papers all around the country for a low fee. Imagine how much publicity you can get from that! You choose your budget and everything. They have different advertising packages to suit different business needs.

Whatever you choose to market, always use powerful phrases in your messages. The most effective ads are brief but they have the ability to act upon the feelings of the readers. Motivate them, intrigue them, make them feel the heat. Always remember that short phrases with a strong emotional impact are the most effective ones.
– Highway billboards –

If you want to advertise outdoor some companies may help you with this project like for example Keep in mind that this is an expensive type of advertisement. To rent an ad space on a well populated area will usually cost you a few thousand dollars per month.

On the other hand, I think the best choice you have is to buy a piece of land in or near a mayor highway and set everything up by yourself. Learn about the laws and regulations in your specific state. Probably the most important agency you will have to contact is your state Department of Transportation.

Visit to find your state agency. They can give you specific information about this subject. Basically you will have to fill out an application where you affirm that you own the land where the billboard will be placed and you will pay an annual fee which may range from $100 to $500 depending on the state you live. To have someone design and create the ad for you will cost you $1,000 to $3,000. That’s a one time fee you will pay.

How much publicity can you get from this? A lot! But it all depends on your ad’s location. If your ad is next to a highway with a high traffic volume, let’s say that on average 45,000 different drivers travels through said highway everyday, then there will be more than a million individuals watching it every month.

That’s a lot, but to be honest with you, this kind of advertisement works better for local businesses like nearby restaurants or real estate Companies than for other kinds of businesses. Also transnational corporations with a large advertising budget, which would like to build reputation would want to have many billboard ads across the nation.

Small business owners usually prefer to market their products using other less expensive techniques. Anyway, I included this information here because I thought some of you would like to read about it. After all this is another way you can reach a vast amount of individuals in an everyday basis.
– TV Commercials –

To advertise on television will have a powerful impact on your business revenues. Different factors will determine how much this marketing strategy will cost you. For example the price vary depending on the channels you choose, how often you will advertise, etc.

There are some Companies which can help you reach your clients easily. I think the two most popular are and In National TV Spots some marketing packages start as low as $26 for a 30 seconds spot. This is other way to diversify your marketing techniques.

– Magazine Ads –

You can advertise on magazines and save up to 80% off the regular price. There is a company called Media Bids –, which allow you to meet other marketers as well as to choose among different marketing packages available. The service is free. You only pay for an ad if you choose to make a purchase.

As you can see, these techniques can increase your exposure and help you get more clients. You can read about other effective marketing techniques from my other articles on this series.

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The Little Inns of Court.


THE origin of the decadent institutions located in certain grim and dreary-looking piles of building dotting the district of the Inns of Court proper, and known as the little Inns of Court, is involved in considerable obscurity. They appear to have originally held a similar position to the great seats of legal education as the halls of Oxford and Cambridge do to the Universities. But at the present time their relation to the Inns of Court proper is not very clear, and the uses they serve, otherwise than as residential chambers, are just as hard to discover. This state of mistiness concerning them has existed so long that no one now seems to know anything about them, and the evidence taken more than forty years ago by a Royal Commission did so little to clear away the dust and cobwebs hanging about them that they still remain, in the words of Lord Dundreary, “things that no fellow can understand.”

Lyon’s Inn has since that time been swept


away to make room for the new Courts of Law, without any person evincing the smallest interest in its fate. Concerning this institution all that could be learned by the Royal Commission was contained in the evidence of Timothy Tyrrell, who “believed” that it consisted of members or “ancients,” he could not say which; he believed the terms were synonymous. There were then only himself and one other, and within his recollection there had never been more than five, and they had nothing to do beyond receiving the rents of the chambers. There were no students, and the only payment made on account of legal instruction was a sum of £7 13s. 4d. paid to the society of the Inner Temple for a reader; but there had been no reader since 1832. He had heard his father say that the reader “burlesqued the things so greatly” that the ancients were disgusted, and would not have another. There was a hall, but it was used only by a debating society; and there was a kitchen attached to it, but he had never heard of a library.

New Inn appears to have been somewhat more alive than Lyon’s, though it does not seem to have done any more to advance the cause of legal education. The property is held under the


by a lease of three hundred years from 1744, at a rent of four pounds a year. Among the stipulations of the lease is one allowing the lessors to hold lectures in the hall, but none had been held since 1846, in consequence, it was believed, of the Middle Temple ceasing to send a reader. The lectures never numbered more than five or six in a year; and there is now no provision of any kind for legal education. Samuel Brown Jackson, who represented the inn before the Royal Commission, said he knew nothing concerning any ancient deeds or documents that would throw any light on the original constitution and functions of the body. If any there were, he “supposed” they were in the custody of the treasurer. The only source of income was the rents of chambers, which then amounted to between eighteen and nineteen hundred pounds a year; and the ancients have no duties beyond the administration of the funds.

Concerning the origin of Clement’s Inn, Thomas Gregory, the steward of the society, was unable to afford full information, but he had seen papers dating back to 1677, when there was a conveyance by Lord Clare to one Killett, followed by a Chancery suit between the latter and the principal and ancients of the society, which resulted in a decree under which the property so conveyed became vested in the inn. Some of the papers relating to the inn had been lost by fire, and “some of them,” said the witness, “we can’t read.” The inn, he believed, was formerly a monastery, and took its name from St. Clement. It had once been in connection with the Inner Temple, but he could find no papers showing what were the relations between the two societies, “except,” he added, “that a reader comes once a term, but that was dropped for twenty years—I think till about two or three years ago, and then we applied to them ourselves, and they knew nothing at all about it; the under-treasurer said he did not know anything about the reader, and had forgotten all about it.” It was the custom for the Inner Temple to submit three names to the ancients; and, said the witness, “we chose one; but then they said that the gentleman was out of town, or away, and that there was no time to appoint another.” But no great loss seems to have resulted thereby to the cause of legal education, for it appears that all a reader had ever done was to explain some recent Act of Parliament to the ancients and commoners, there being no students. The inn had no library and no chapel, but as a substitute for the latter had three pews in the neighbouring church of St. Clement, and also a vault, in which, said the witness, “the principals or ancients may be buried if they wish it.”

Some remarkable evidence was given concerning Staples Inn, and the more remarkable for being given by Edward Rowland Pickering, the author of a book on the subject, which publication one of the Commissioners had before him while the witness was under examination. “You state here,” said the Commissioner, “that in the reign of Henry V., or before, the society probably became an Inn of Chancery, and that it is a society still possessing the manuscripts of its orders and constitutions.” “I am afraid,” replied the witness, “that the manuscript is lost. The principal has a set of chambers which were burnt down, and his servant and two children were burnt to death, seventy years ago; and I rather think that these manuscripts might be lost.” Where the learned historian of the inn had obtained the materials for that work is a question which he does not appear to have been in a position to answer; for when asked whether he knew of any trace of a connection between the society and an Inn of Court, he replied, “Certainly, I should say not. It is sixty years since I was there, boy and all.” A very strange answer considering the statement in his book. During the sixty years he had been connected or acquainted with the society, he had never heard of the existence of a reader, or of any association of the inn with legal education or legal pursuits. The only connection claimed for the inn by the principal, Andrew Snape Thorndike, was that, when a serjeant was called from Gray’s Inn, that society invited the members of Staples Inn to breakfast. There is a singular provision respecting the tenure of chambers in this inn by the ancients. “A person,” said this witness, “holds them for his own life, and though he may be seventy years of age, if he can come into the hall, he may surrender them to a very young man, and if that young man should live he may surrender them again at the same age.” If a surrender is not made, the chambers revert to the society.

Barnard’s Inn is a very old one, and the property has been held on lease from the dean and chapter of Lincoln for more than three hundred years. The society consists of a principal, nine ancients, and five companions, which latter are chosen by the ancients; but we fail to gather from the evidence of Charles Edward Hunt, treasurer and secretary of the inn, by what principles the ancients are guided in the selection. We learn, however, that applications for admission by solicitors are not allowed. Such a thing had occurred once, but it was as long ago as 1827, and “of course,” said the witness, “we refused him, and he applied to the court, and after some difficulty he got a rule nisi for a mandamus. It came on to be tried before Lord Tenterden, and Lord Tenterden said it could not be granted; that we were a voluntary association, and the court had no jurisdiction.” The applicant seems to have based his claim on the ground that Barnard’s was an Inn of Chancery, and that, as a solicitor, he had a right to be admitted. The matter was scarcely worth contention, as the privileges of the companions are confined to dining in hall and the chance of being made an ancient, that favoured grade being entitled to “their dinners and some little fees.” The books of the society showed no trace of there ever having been any students of law connected with the inn. “The oldest thing I find,” said the witness, “is that a reader came occasionally from Gray’s Inn to read; but what he read about, or who paid him, there is no minute whatever.” He did not know when a reader last came from Gray’s Inn; he thought it was about two hundred years ago. It only remains to be told of Barnard’s Inn that it has not even a library; there had been a few books at one time, the witness told the Commission, but they were sold as useless!

Concerning the remaining little inns—Clifford’s, Symond’s, and Furnival’s—no evidence was taken. They appear to be merely residential chambers, much the same as some of those concerning which we have information in the report of the Royal Commission and the evidence given before it, and the chambers are far from being used exclusively by members of the legal profession. Nearly sixty years ago the present writer found a retired army officer occupying chambers in Clifford’s, and on a later occasion made at Symond’s Inn, the acquaintance of a curate who resided there with his wife and a young family! Concerning Furnival’s Inn, it was incidentally stated by Michael Doyle, who represented Lincoln’s Inn before the Royal Commission, that the latter society received £576 a year under a lease of the former property granted to the late Henry Peto for ninety-nine years, £500 being for rent, and the remainder in lieu of land tax. The witness was, however, unable to give any information as to the manner in which, or the date when, the property was acquired by Lincoln’s Inn.

The inquiry by the Royal Commission resulted in the recommendation of some very important changes in the constitution of the little Inns of Court and the administration of the several properties; but these, we learn, have been modified so much in their adoption as to have been of very little value. The societies have long outlived the purposes for which they were instituted, though their principals and officials seem to attach considerable importance to their continued existence. It is probable, however, that their raison d’étre being gone, they will all sooner or later go the way of Lyon’s Inn, and become things of the past.