Author: WaelBadawy


Architectures for Finite Radon Transform

Two VLSI architectures for the finite Radon transform are presented. The first is a reference architecture using memory blocks and the second is a memoryless architecture. The proposed architectures use 7×7 size image blocks and are prototyped for processing the CIF image sequence. The simulation and synthesis results show that the core speeds of the two proposed architectures are around 100 and 82 MHz, respectively.

Published in:

Electronics Letters  (Volume:40 ,  Issue: 15 )


C. A. Rahman and W. Badawy, “Architectures for Finite Radon Transform“, The IEE Electronics Letters, Vol. 40, Issue 15, July 2004, pp. 931-932.



A Computational RAM (C-RAM) Architecture for Real-Time Mesh-Based Video Motion Tracking: Part II Motion Compensation

This paper presents a new Computational-RAM (C-RAM) architecture for real-time mesh-based video motion tracking. In Part 1, the motion estimation part of the proposed architecture is presented. Here in Part 2, a new C-RAM mesh-based motion compensation architecture is presented. The input data to the architecture is the mesh nodes motion vectors and the reference frame and the output data is the compensated (i.e., predicted) frame. The architecture uses the affine transformation for warping the deformed patches in the reference frame into the undeformed patches in the current frame. The architecture computes the affine parameters using a multiplication-free algorithm. The reference and current frames are stored in embedded S-RAMs generated with Virage™ Memory Compiler. The proposed motion compensation architecture has been prototyped, simulated and synthesized using the TSMC 0.18 μm CMOS technology. Using 100 MHz clock frequency, the proposed architecture processes one CIF video frame (i.e., 352×288 pixels) in 0.59 ms, which means it can process up to 1694 frames per second. The core area of the proposed motion compensation architecture is 28.04 mm2 and it consumes 31.15 mW.


Mohammed Sayed and Wael Badawy, “A Computational RAM (C-RAM) Architecture for Real-Time Mesh-Based Video Motion Tracking: Part II Motion Compensation,” Journal of Circuits, Systems and Computer, Vol. 13, Issue 6, December 2004, pp. 1217-1232.


A Computational RAM (C-RAM) Architecture for Real-Time Mesh-Based Video Motion Tracking: Part I Motion Estimation,


This paper presents a new Computational-RAM (C-RAM) architecture for real-time mesh-based video motion tracking. The motion tracking consists of two operations: mesh-based motion estimation and compensation. The proposed motion estimation architecture is presented in Part 1 and the proposed motion compensation architecture is presented in Part 2. The motion estimation architecture stores two frames and computes motion vectors for a regular triangular mesh structure as defined by MPEG-4 Part 2.1 The motion estimation architecture uses the block-matching algorithm (BMA) to estimate the vertical and horizontal motion vectors for each mesh node. Parallel and pipelined implementations have been used to overcome the huge computational requirements of the motion estimation process. The two frames are stored in embedded S-RAMs generated with Virage™ Memory Compiler. The proposed motion estimation architecture has been prototyped, simulated and synthesized using the TSMC 0.18 μm CMOS technology. At 100 MHz clock frequency, the proposed architecture processes one CIF video frame (i.e., 352×288 pixels) in 1.48 ms, which means it can process up to 675 frames per second. The core area of the proposed motion estimation architecture is 24.58 mm2 and it consumes 46.26 mW.

Read More:


Mohammed Sayed and Wael Badawy, “A Computational RAM (C-RAM) Architecture for Real-Time Mesh-Based Video Motion Tracking: Part I Motion Estimation,” Journal of Circuits, Systems and Computers, Vol. 13, Issue 6, December 2004, pp. 1203-1216.


A Real-time Multiple-cell Tracking Platform for Dielectrophoresis (DEP) based Cellular Analysis,

There is an increasing demand from biosciences to develop new and efficient techniques to assist in the preparation and analysis of biological samples such as cells in suspension. A dielectrophoresis (DEP)-based characterization and measurement technique on biological cells opens up a broader perspective for early diagnosis of diseases. An efficient real-time multiple-cell tracking platform coupled with DEP to capture and quantify the dynamics of cell motion and obtain cell viability information is presented. The procedure for tracking a single DEP-levitated Canola plant protoplast, using the motion-based segmentation algorithm hierarchical adaptive merge split mesh-based technique (HAMSM) for cell identification, has been enhanced for identifying and tracking multiple cells. The tracking technique relies on the deformation of mesh topology that is generated according to the movement of biological cells in a sequence of images that allows the simultaneous extraction of the biological cell from the image and the associated motion characteristics. Preliminary tests were conducted with yeast cells and then applied to a cancerous cell line subjected to DEP fields. Characteristics, such as cell count, velocity and size, were individually extracted from the tracked results of the cell sample. Tests were limited to eight yeast cells and two cancer cells. A performance analysis to assess tracking accuracy, computational effort and processing time was also conducted. The tracking technique employed on model intact cells in DEP fields proved to be accurate, reliable and robust.



Brinda Prasad, K. Kaler and Wael Badawy, “A Real-time Multiple-cell Tracking Platform for Dielectrophoresis (DEP) based Cellular Analysis,” Measurement Science and Technology, Vol. 6, April 2005, pp. 909-924.


A new time distributed DCT architecture for MPEG-4 hardware reference model

This paper presents the design of a new time distributed architecture (TDA) which outlines the architecture (ISO/IEC JTC1/SC29/WG11 MPEG2002/M8565) submitted to MPEG4 Part9 committee and included in the ISO/IEC JTC1/SC29/WG11 MPEG2002/9115N document. The proposed TDA optimizes the two-dimensional discrete cosine transform (2-D-DCT) architecture performance. It uses a time distribution mechanism to exploit the computational redundancy within the inner product computation module. The application specific requirements of input, output and coefficients word length are met by scheduling the input data. The coefficient matrix uses linear mappings to assign necessary computation to processor elements in both space and time domains. The performance analysis shows performance savings in excess of 96% as compared to the direct implementation and more than 71% as compared to other optimized application specific architectures for DCT.

Published in:

Circuits and Systems for Video Technology, IEEE Transactions on  (Volume:15 ,  Issue: 5 )

Alam, M.; Badawy, W.; Jullien, G.; “A new time distributed DCT architecture for MPEG-4 hardware reference model,” IEEE Circuits and Systems for Video Technology, Volume 15, Issue 5, May 2005, pp. 726 – 730.


My book is a nonlegal guide and it is not an "il-legal" guide

I am in the process of publishing my new book series “the non-legal guide”.  As directed by my publisher, I started the marketing and pre-selling activities.

Last week, I was asked twice about the contents of the book and “Why do you write about an illegal guide?”  As a shocking question, I want to answer, I wrote this blog to describe what is the book about.

In the dictionary “nonlegal” is an adjective and means that  “not related to, qualified for, or phrased in the manner of the practice of law”  i.e. the guide does provide any legal related guidance.
In the dictionary “illegal”  can be an adjective or a noun.   The former one means either forbidden by law or statute, or  contrary to or forbidden by official rules, regulations, etc.
While the later (i.e. as noun) means informal.
My book series are to provide an guide to the court process that are not related to a legal matters, or a legal advices.  In my experience, the legal aspect in dealing with court may fall below 5% of the process.  Filling forms, paying fees and other process and procedures are not related to any legal advices or activities.
My book is written to the Self Represent Litigant and provides a comprehensive guidance to all aspects of the court outside the legal advice.  Moreover, it describes how to seek a legal advice efficiently and  at cost effective.   It is a must read for anyone who is trying to use the court.  
The draft of the guide was used by several Self Representative litigants and was able to save them between $8,000  to  $17,000 per court step, although they have a legal representation.
Please let me know what do you think about this book in the comments below.

You are not running a business. You are copying grandma's hobby of making pies.


Like all grandmas, she had the hobby of making pies and we receive lots of them to make her happy. Like it or not, as grandkids, we are told to thank our grandma for the pie and tell her how wonderful is the pie, how we cannot resist finishing the last pie, which was the best.  Then we ends up having more pies, although we did not like the pies till today.


Grandma is a very senior, (and I hate to say “old”) with very limited mobility and almost no eyesight. She will challenge her ability to make more pies and send them to her grandkids because she believes she makes them happier.


I was invited to the introduction of a new product with the business owner, and I was told that it is better product that best serve my health and my life.

I was given a bottle to try and I am just curious.   I was told that it is a new product that is better than anything else for my health.  I was intrigued and as I start to ask simple questions to find a reason to try the sample.


After asking few questions, I found a very strong resistance to answer these simple questions. Then, I was framed as a consultant who is looking for new clients. Then, I was told to not impose my service. The fact is I am not a consultant and I am not shopping for new clients.    I wonder, if I should ask the business owner to simply search my name on google “Wael Badawy” to know who I am and what I do.


The product is introduced, as a combination of ingredients that I know, ingredients that I do not know, and ingredient that I may not heard about it.

This introduction triggered a flag, because I do not generally eat or drink what I do not know, in the absence of a strong motive, such as being ill.


THEN, the ingredients are very healthy and it has better fruits and vegetables that I do not know but I should consume for their valuable impact.

I am not sure what is missing here? But, my understanding is the consumers of  organic products like to know everything about their food. They do not like the unknown chemicals that may impact their health.  At this point, I saw the second flag, because I was judged again.

For me, rightly or wrongly, “organic” is good enough to justify its high price, but  “organic” or natural ingredients that I do not know to be better for my health, is not true.   Pure marijuana and marijuana’s leaves are organic and natural but they are dangerous and even though we need to know more details to understand its medicinal effect.   If I consume it, I will be addicted and most likely, I will end up in Jail but I am consuming an organic natural plant!!!


THEN, the product’s presentation explained the principle of consuming the full fruit/vegetable in a juice, against extracts.  In my mind, this principle is questionable with diverse arguments. As a matter of fact, having a full lime as a juice will change its flavor and texture with time because of oxidation, and it can turn to be poisoning or has a higher level of toxic.  On the other hand, I cannot consume the whole orange or the whole banana. I have to peal it first!!!

– Anyway, I will pass on this argument because I am not the expert in food but I know what I eat.


At this point, I started to ask questions to better understand who is the business owner, what is the value of the product and what is the quality of the product in order to have a level of confidence to try the product.


I asked about the size of the business, to feel comfort that there are others who trust this product and buy it.  I was looking for the customers’ WHY to compare it to mine, i.e. what are the reasons to buy this over-priced product. Oh, this product will cost 25x – 35x the price of a high quality 100% natural juice.


I asked about the plan to grow the business in the next three or five years. I asked about the vision of the owner to confirm the quality of the product, and there is someone stands behind the product.   All what I received is “3 and 5 years are very long time”.  In the absence of an answer, it demonstrates that there is no continuity and no guarantee to a quality control process.   i.e. two samples of the product with the same ingredient, will have different taste.


I asked about the value of the product? The question aimed to help me to find my WHY, and I can try the sample.   The articulated value is “You drink good natural stuff, so your body will perform better”.  There is no confirmation or reference other than the business owner has issues and it was solved by personally drinking this combination. There was no testimonial and no confirmation of the business owner story. So, I attempted to clarify and I asked, does it help with a diet plan? or release weight? or having high energy? etc.  The value was articulated as you eat better ingredients, you will be healthier and you feel good, with a proof.

I do not eat pizza and burger everyday and I eat apple and banana everyday. As it was said “One apple a day, keeps the doctor away!!!”

The articulated value is very general and I can have a blinder. I will use a mix of fruits and vegetables. AND, WOW, the juice will have the same value.


The answer continues to be “the ingredients used are planted by the owner in business owner’s garden and then picked and prepared to make the product!!!”


I asked about the science or the research behind this drink.  The answer is that the business owner has researched each of the known and unknown ingredients.  But, the business owner has two degrees (none of them are related to food, or health or technology or medicine). Yes, everyone may be impressed of these two degrees that have no relation to the business.

Moreover, the business owner has no passion to either degree and do not work with these degrees but the business owner offers this product to serve and help others.

The product looks professional with an expiry date to expire in two days!!! The product comes in a quantity of 1, 4 and 8 bottles.   I do not know the reason that of the expiry date given that there is no research or science behind the product to determine the impact of the three days instead of two.  I wonder If someone orders a pack of eight bottles, will he/her consome them all in two days. What about the logistics of producing, distributing and consuming a product that has to be kept cold (I assume) in two days?

It translates to a very limited number of customers with limited quantity orders, within a very small geographical area. So, the production, distribution and consumption in two days!!!.


I have to say that this is not a business, this is a grandma hobby to make pies, as:

1- The pies are initially FREE, till she asks for a favor in return, which will be fairly pricy.

2- The ingredients are from grandma apple tree in the backyard – Oh, by the way, the apple tree is very natural and very organic, because grandma is a senior and can not take care of the apple tree and no one fertilizes the tree.

3- Grandma believes that she makes her family happier by offering more pies. She consumes her effort, while her grandkids do not prefer to eat the pies, or do not eat them at all.

4- Grandma’s pies have to be eaten hot, and within one or two days.

5- No one knows the secret ingredient of the pies, even grandma herself does not.

6- Grandma pies taste differs from time to time. It is a function of the mood and the time in the oven, but grandma does not read the time.

7- Grandma serves only her family and close friends, which is a very limited consumer base.


The whole time, I was simply looking for a reason to try a sample of a new product.  I may feel lucky to put my hand on a free sample of this product. I was trying to find a reason for myself. I know grandma, but I do not know the business owner.   So please stop copying grandma hobby making pies and focus on building a business.


Note from the author: 

This is a true story and I held the name of the product and business confidential because I have the care and passion to every small business and entrepreneur in our community.   I strongly believe that the message within this post will help everyone in their business, So please let me know your thoughts below. 


I declare that I owe the business owner the price of the sample because I did not feel comfort to drink it, which is my fault AND now the sample expired!!!





By James O. Hamblen and Michael D. Furman, Kluwer Academic Publishers, 2000.

This book provides an exciting and chal- lenging laboratory component for an un- dergraduate student as well as design engineers working in industry. It intro- duces the field programmable logic device (FPLD) technology and logic synthesis us- ing CAD tools. The book is organized in 13 chapters as follows. Chapter 1 provides a tutorial for CAD tools that covers the de- sign entry, simulation, and hardware im- plementation using an FPLD. Chapter 2 provides an overview of the UP1 FPLD de- velopment board, where the features of the board are briefly described. Chapter 3 introduces the programmable logic tech- nology where the most common complex programmable logic device (CPLD) and field programmable gate array (FPGA) are presented. Chapter 4 is a tutorial to use both a hierarchical and sequential design with different examples. Chapter 5 de- scribes the UP1core library I/O functions. Chapter 6 introduces the use of VHDL for the synthesis of digital hardware. Chapter 7 describes a state machine that controls a virtual electric train system simulation with video output generated directly by the CPLD. Chapter 8 develops a VHDL model of a simple computer where a fetch, decode, and execute cycle is simulated.


39 s

Chapter 9 describes how to design an FPLD-based digital system to output VGA video. Chapter 10 describes the PS/2 key- board operation and presents interface ex- amples for integration in designs on the UP1 board. Chapter 11 describes the PS/2 mouse operation and presents interface examples for integration in designs on the UP1 board. Chapter 12 develops a design for an adaptable mobile robot using the UP1 board. Chapter 13 describes a single clock cycle model of the MIPS RISC pro- cessor. The book also includes a large number of laboratory problems and a vari- ety of design projects at the end of each chapter.

The book comes with the new student version of Altera’s MAX+PLUS II CAD tool and the UP1 board is available from Altera at special student pricing.

This is an ideal book for undergraduate digital logic and computer design courses with more than 40 fully developed and simulated examples that can be used on the UP1 board.


Build a Hardware Accelerator



Amir Darvishi, Wael Badawy “Build a Hardware Accelerator“Circuit Cellar August 2005, pp.24 – 29



Review of Principles of verifiable RTL design

By Lionel Bening and Harry Foster, Kluwer Academic Publishers, 2000.

Using verifiable RTL design, an engineer can add or improve the use of cycle-based simulation, two-state simulation, formal equivalence checking, and model checking in the traditional verification flow. Furthermore, a verifiable RTL coding methodology permits the engineer to achieve greater verification coverage in minimal time, enhances cooperation and support for multiple EDA tools within the flow, clarifies RTL design intent, and facilitates emerging verification processes.

This book addresses verification of synchronous designs. It provides a comprehensive understanding of various verification processes from conceptual and practical approaches. The concepts presented in this book are drawn from author experience with large-scale system design projects. It draws a technique methodology for verifiable RTL coding. The book is divided into nine chapters as follows. Chapter 1 provides a short introduction of this book. Chapter 2 introduces four principles of RTL design (fundamental verification principle, retain useful information principle, orthogonal verification principle, and functional observation principle) and issues related to verifiable RTL (design specification, test strategies, coverage analysis, event monitoring, and assertion checking). Chapter 3 introduces the basics of the RTL methodology and addresses the problem of complexity due to competing tool coding requirements. It introduces a simplified and tool-efficient Verilog RTL verifiable subset using an object-oriented hardware design (OOHD) methodology. Moreover, it details a linting methodology, which is used to enforce project-specific coding rules and tool performance checks. Chapter 4 presents the history of logic simulation, followed by a discussion on applying RTL simulation at various stages within the design phase. Chapter 5 discusses RTL and the formal verification process. It presents the concept of finite state machine FSM and its analysis and applicability to proving machine equivalence and FSM properties. Chapter 6 discusses ideas on verifiable RTL style. Chapter 7 provides examples on the common mistakes that are involved with projects, designers, and EDA verification tool developers. Chapter 8 presents a tutorial on Verilog language elements that can be used to build a verifiable RTL model. Chapter 9 summarizes the 21 fundamental principles of verifiable RTL Design, which are discussed throughout the book.

This book is considered one of the milestones for verifiable RTL design. It shows an efficient methodology for writing a verifiable RTL, and it defines guidelines for large-scale systems. I believe that every engineer working in the area of RTL design should read this book.



Wael Badawy, “Principles of verifiable RTL design“, IEEE Circuits and Devices Magazine, Vol. 18, Issue 1, January 2002, pp. 26 -27